TYPES OF TRUSSES IN STRUCTURES BASICS AND TUTORIALS

TRUSSES TYPES USED IN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING BASIC INFO
What Are the Different Types of Trusses In Construction?


Trusses. When depth limits permit, a more economical way of spanning long distances is with trusses, for both floor and roof construction. Because of their greater depth, trusses usually provide greater stiffness against deflection when compared pound for pound with the corresponding rolled beam or plate girder that
otherwise would be required.
Six general types of trusses frequently used in building frames are shown in Fig. 7.11 together with modifications that can be made to suit particular conditions.

Trusses in Fig. 7.11a to d and k may be used as the principal supporting members in floor and roof framing. Types e to j serve a similar function in the framing of symmetrical roofs having a pronounced pitch. As shown, types a to d have a top chord that is not quite parallel to the bottom chord. Such an arrangement is
used to provide for drainage of flat roofs.

Most of the connections of the roof beams (purlins), which these trusses support, can be identical, which would not be the case if the top chord were dead level and the elevation of the purlins varied. When used in floors, truss types a to d have parallel chords.

Properly proportioned, bow string trusses (Fig. 7.11j) have the unique characteristic that the stress in their web members is relatively small. The top chord, which usually is formed in the arc of a circle, is stressed in compression, and the bottom chord is stressed in tension. In spite of the relatively expensive operation of forming the top chord, this type of truss has proved very popular in roof framing on spans of moderate lengths up to about 100 ft.

The Vierendeel truss (Fig. 7.11k) generally is shop welded to the extent possible to develop full rigidity of connections between the verticals and chords. It is useful where absence of diagonals is desirable to permit passage between the verticals.

Trusses also may be used for long spans, as three-dimensional trusses (space frames) or as grids. In two-way girds, one set of parallel lines of trusses is intersected at 90 by another set of trusses so that the verticals are common to both sets.

Because of the rigid connections at the intersections, loads are distributed nearly equally to all trusses. Reduced truss depth and weight savings are among the apparent advantages of such grids.

Long-span joists are light trusses closely spaced to support floors and flat roofs. They conform to standard specifications (Table 7.1) and to standard loading. Both Pratt and Warren types are used, the shape of chords and webs varying with the fabricator.

Yet, all joists with the same designation have the same guaranteed load supporting capacity. The standard loading tables list allowable loads for joists up to 72 in deep and with clear span up to 144 ft. The joists may have parallel or sloping chords or other configuration.

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