AutoCAD is the most widely used CAD software in civil engineering applications. In an effort toward computer-integrated construction (CIC), researchers have developed a link between AutoCAD and a knowledge-based planning program [Cherneff et al., 1991].

CATIA is a three-dimensional solid modeling software marketed by IBM Corporation. Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation, in cooperation with IBM, developed an integrated database for engineering, design, construction, and facilities management. The system uses the DB2 relational database management system and the CATIA computer-aided-design software system [Reinschmidt et al., 1991].

Bechtel Corporation developed a three-dimensional simulation system called Walkthrough to aid in marketing, planning, and scheduling of construction projects. Walkthrough was developed to replace the use of plastic models as a design tool [Cleveland and Francisco, 1988].

It was designed to allow users to interact with a three-dimensional computer model as they would with a plastic model. The system uses three-dimensional, real-time animation that lets the user visually move through the computer model and observe visual objects.

Graphics of the system are presented such that objects are recognizable to  users not accustomed to typical CAD images. This includes the use of multiple colors and shading.

Walkthrough uses a Silicon Graphics IRIS workstation with specialized processors facilitating the high speed graphics required for real-time animation. This visualization and simulation system supports files from IGDS (Intergraph CAD system) and 3DM [Morad et al., 1992].

Object-Oriented CAD Model
An object-oriented CAD model for the design of concrete structures that uses EUROCODE2, a European standard for concrete structures, has been developed by German researchers. The primitive instancing solid-modeling technique was employed in the development of this object-oriented model [Reymendt and Worner, 1993].

A committee, entitled “NEW TECCMAR,” formed under the Japanese construction ministry, developed a three-dimensional finite-element method (FEM) program with an extended graphical interface to analyze general buildings [Horning and Kinura, 1993].

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